Are Entrepreneurs More Prone To Depression And Divorce?

Amy and I talk a lot about big issues, such as depression and divorce, in Startup Life: Surviving and Thriving in a Relationship with an Entrepreneur. I’ve been speaking from experience on each of these topics, as I’ve struggled with anxiety and depression my entire adult life (the official DSM-IV code I have for my diagnosis from 1991 is 300.3 – Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder) and, in 1990, I was divorced from my first wife.

I’ve always been open about these two issues (and experiences) since they’ve had a profound impact on me. I’ve learned how to manage my OCD and, even when I’m depressed, I’m very functional (if you didn’t know I was having a depressive episode, you’d think I was just flat or having an off day.) And many of the things that Amy and I do right in our relationship are lessons that we learned when reflecting on why my first marriage, and marriages of friends of ours – many of which are entrepreneurial couples – have failed.

As I’ve been doing interviews and talking about Startup Life, I’ve been asked several times whether or not entrepreneurs are more prone to depression and divorce. While I have zero empirical data, I believe from my qualitative experience that they are no less prone to this than the rest of the population. But I don’t really have empirical data to support this assertion either.

So – I’m looking for real data. Do any of you out there know of real quantitative studies – preferably academic / social science oriented, that investigate the question of whether or not entrepreneurs are more prone to depression? Or, a separate study that investigates the question of whether or not entrepreneurs are more prone to divorce?

If you know of one, email me or leave it in the comments.

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  • http://MeetInnovators.com Adrian Bye

    it might be helpful to get a better idea of current DSM diagnoses for typical entrepreneurs

    • http://www.feld.com bfeld

      Yup – hopefully someone will turn up research around this. I just got a note from Lesa Mitchell at Kauffman Foundation about studies they’ve done on dyslexia and ADD – getting that soon.

  • http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=632890527 Joe Sinkwitz

    My bet is that you’ll find studies correlating stress to depression/divorce and separate studies that correlate occupation to stress. Surgeons and post-war soldiers also have higher than average divorce rates if I’m not mistaken and rank fairly high on the stress scale. If you get two data sources you can create a pivot in excel or just dump it into mysql and play.

    • http://www.feld.com bfeld

      Yup – I want to zone in on entrepreneurs first, but tangential references / sources from other high stress occupations (surgeons / soldiers) are helpful.

      • http://twitter.com/jschnip John Schnipkoweit

        Having gone through a divorce recently (after the start of my second company), this post spiked my interest. I found this study referencing historical data and some current census data for many occupations – nothing specific to entrepreneurs. Since “entrepreneur” is such a broad term that covers many different occupational skillsets – it might be interesting/more relevant to see a study that compares rate between eg. a software engineer vs a software engineer who starts a company. Vs comparing entrepreneurs to the entire population at large. http://faculty-course.insead.edu/popescu/UDJCore/2010/handouts/Divorce%20Rates.pdf

        Looking forward to digesting your latest book!

      • http://www.facebook.com/juergen.osterberg Jürgen Osterberg

        In terms of high engagement, identification with your ideas, but the same problem such as long-distance relationships, extended periods apart, high job uncertainty, it might be interesting to look for studies regarding people pursuing a job in science and academia?

  • http://freepository.com John Minnihan

    I think that many (most?) people experience depression + related disorders at some point in their lives. It just remains undiagnosed.

  • http://www.feld.com bfeld
  • Ella

    I haven’t come across any articles of the like, however, from experience — it’s extremely difficult. I’m married to an entrepreneur and it seems like we only go home to sleep for a couple of hours a night then go back to work. As far as being depressed – there are days. Like I said, it’s extremely difficult. I wouldn’t divorce him. We try to get one qualitative date night at least once a week.

  • DaveJ

    Pubmed doesn’t have anything right on topic, but here are a couple related (pretty weak):

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22547121
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22390450

  • http://www.facebook.com/dain.carver Dain Carver

    I recently filed for a divorce and have had bits of my own depression…I just put up sign on my wall that reads “Just Keep Pushing Forward!”. This has become my new mantra in life and whenever I start getting down or question what I am doing with my life I just think about that. If you do find anything on this I would be very interested to find out.

    • http://www.feld.com bfeld

      Make sure you surround yourself with friends and your support system during this period. I had a really tough time for a few years after my divorce in my mid-20s. Close, supportive, understanding friends made all the difference. Amy and I talk openly about this in Startup Life: Surviving and Thriving in a Relationship with an Entrepreneur – http://startuprev.com/lifebook

      • http://www.facebook.com/dain.carver Dain Carver

        Thanks, I will definitely fall back on them! Its been a rough period,but I am making progress and focusing on my work. I make time for family and friends, but I am trying to take my negatives and focus that energy on the positive things in my life. For me it seems that this is the best way to get on with my life…

  • http://www.webe.com.au Sam Birmingham

    I’ve not found any research on the topic, but I understand that there is a higher incidence of depression amongst Type A personalities and that Type A’s are also more likely to be entrepreneurs… Correlation does not equal causation, but would be interested to see if that is factored into whatever study exists

    • http://www.webe.com.au Sam Birmingham

      If it turns out that no research has been done yet, I know Tak Lo was contemplating it… He gave a great talk on work/life balance at GAN Conference in Boston and shared a Launchrock page — complete with picture of The Fonz, explaining that not every day can be a happy day — to try kick it off :)

      Other option would be to see if the Startup Genome peeps could start building out the data in their questionairres

  • http://twitter.com/KPierceIndy Kathy Galvin-Pierce

    I too have been given the “certified stamp” of OCD since I was 14. A daily challenge not only for me but my exceptionally supportive family. Being an entrepreneur is a good fit. I’ve found that I can redirect my “triggers” to be stepping stones instead of stumbling blocks. I wonder if it’s less that entrepreneurs are more prone to depression and more that the Obsessive Compulsive are more prone to entrepreneurship? ;) The research would be interesting. I hope you can turn some up!

    • http://twitter.com/AshDotJen Ashley Jennings

      OCD is my plight as well. Medication and some jedi mind tricks keep me in line.

  • Van Gogh

    Think beyond entrepreneur…Van Gogh / Hemingway were entrepreneurs of sorts producing art/literature vs software. Some entrepreneurs are simply business men selling products. — i.e. Etsy.com or Fab.com. Think everything correlates to driven, creative, brilliant and highly emotionally intelligent. Is Brad an author, investor, runner, husband … or just simply creative, brilliant and I.E.?

    • http://www.feld.com bfeld

      I had another friend suggest the linkage between artists and entrepreneurs and it’s a good one. I’m 99% certain I’ve seen real research around mental illness and artists, so I’m going to go hunt that down now.

    • http://www.feld.com bfeld

      I had another friend suggest the linkage between artists and entrepreneurs and it’s a good one. I’m 99% certain I’ve seen real research around mental illness and artists, so I’m going to go hunt that down now.

      • http://mvalente.eu/ Mario Valente

        I can help :-)

        Off of my shelf:

        “Touched with Fire”, Kay Redfield Jamison

        “Strong Imagination”, Daniel Nettle

        Dont have time to provide Amazon links right now. But you can find them, as well as others, on my Amazon wishlist

        http://www.amazon.co.uk/registry/wishlist/2UT7IBVKQDAP1

      • http://mvalente.eu/ Mario Valente

        Quick pics out of my wishlist

        The Price of Greatness: Resolving the Creativity and Madness Controversy

        Manic Depression and Creativity

  • http://www.kineplay.com/ben Ben Milstead

    I have mild OCD. I hate it when I’m meta-OCD and become OCD about my OCD as I seek to suppress rather than repress. Finding data specific to entrepreneurs as a class sounds tough. Looking at type a’s, highly creative types and super-driven product people and engineer types, maybe successful execs, makes some sense to me. E.g. deconstruct the entrepreneur into component sub-classes, at least that’s a direction in which to head. Qualitatively, my own experiences with other entrepreneurs suggests that they — especially the product and engineer types — are prone to depression and OCD, manic behavior, excessive hubris and definitely divorce. They are also prone to remarkable displays of kindness, honesty, purpose, courage and genius, qualities I observe somewhat less frequently in others.

    • http://www.feld.com bfeld

      Powerful observation at the end – the extreme is part of what is so awesome about many entrepreneurs.

  • http://mvalente.eu/ Mario Valente

    Serial entrepreneur, entrepreneurship teacher, business angel, DSM-IV 296.89 here.

    Some contributions:

    “THE ANATOMY OF THE ENTREPRENEUR:CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS”
    http://www.insead.edu/facultyresearch/research/doc.cfm?did=46902

    “Job Satisfaction and Self-Employment: Autonomy or Personality?”
    http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/12599/2/Self-Employment_and_Job_Satisfaction_final.pdf

    “The Psychology of Entrepreneurship”
    http://goo.gl/9QtfG

    “Self-Employment and Job Satisfaction: Investigating the Role of Self-Efficacy, Depression, and Seniority”
    http://www.questia.com/library/1G1-113304877/self-employment-and-job-satisfaction-investigating

    “Neglect of the Entrepreneur” Harold Demsetz
    (no detailed content available)
    http://goo.gl/ilUF2

    • http://www.feld.com bfeld

      Good stuff – thx Mario!

    • http://www.facebook.com/dain.carver Dain Carver

      Funny enough this excerpt is my life to a T…

      There are also a few more clinically orientated studies concerned with the

      entrepreneurial personality (Collins, Moore and Unwalla, 1964; Collins and Moore,

      1970; Zaleznik and Kets de Vries, 1975; Kets de Vries, 1977,1985.) In these studies

      the entrepreneur’s family background is given closer scrutiny. They suggest that the

      fathers of many entrepreneurs were self-employed. Familiarity with self-employment

      seems to facilitate the creation of one’s own business (Kets de Vries, 1977.) In

      addition, entrepreneurs frequently describe having an absent (or an emotionally not

      present) father and a very overbearing, controlling mother. In addition, during

      interviews the themes of illness, separation and death in the family regularly emerge

  • http://www.feld.com bfeld

    “The effects of becoming an entrepreneur on the use of psychotropics among entrepreneurs and their spouses” – http://sjp.sagepub.com/content/38/8/857.short

  • http://www.facebook.com/zuhairah.scott Zuhairah Scott Washington

    Great discussion. I thought you might find this study by the World Bank using data collected from the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) helpful. The conclusion is that, entrepreneurs are more likely to be married. But not more/less likely to divorce. Conditional on divorce, entrepreneurs are considerably more likely to remarry. Both optimism and risk- taking influence this. The relevant part starts on page. 26 Section 7.1 also see Table 8 in the back.

    Here is the link to the full study: http://www1.worldbank.org/finance/assets/images/manju_puri_entrepreneurship_dr_3.pdf

  • http://petegrif.tumblr.com/ Pete Griffiths

    I suspect this question needs a little refinement. Thinking along Steve Blank’s lines there are many people who start businesses but most of them are not startups (designed to scale.) He outlines several categories of entrepreneurial businesses. Are you particularly interested in startups?

    • http://www.feld.com bfeld

      I’m not sure what I’m interested in yet – I’m casting a wide net and seeing what it picks up.

  • FAKE GRIMLOCK

    WORLD CHANGES FROM THE EDGES.

    IT CHANGED BY WHO LIVES THERE.

    • http://www.feld.com bfeld

      And, as my dad likes to say, “if you aren’t standing on the edge, you are taking up too much space.”

      • FAKE GRIMLOCK

        EVERYTHING DEFINED BY EDGES. REST JUST FILLING.

  • http://www.facebook.com/dain.carver Dain Carver

    Does anyone know if Columbia or any other NYC universities are doing a study? I would gladly submit my experiences to help contribute to the data set..

  • http://www.facebook.com/chetan.vashistth Chetan Vashistth

    I am very much agreed with the facts above and anxiously waiting for the researched results.

  • http://www.facebook.com/rob.emrich Rob Emrich

    Serial entrepreneur here, very interested in this topic as well.
    A few months back, we corresponded about a book I am writing now on the topic of happiness and entrepreneurship. I think there is correlation between the type of people who become entrepreneurs and those prone to depression. I also think most entrepreneurs know that the daily ups and downs, and constant uncertainty can easily cause and reinforce a tendency toward depression. Interestingly I think that when approached with the right mindset the process of entrepreneurship is very closely linked to the constant challenge that is necessary to find lasting meaning and happiness in ones life. I have the sources I have used to make some of these points and would be happy to send.

  • jerrycolonna

    Great topic and quest. It might also be useful to do a longer-term longitudinal study and see if there are specific techniques…perhaps cognitive behavioral therapy techniques–which might be especially helpful for the entrepreneurial mind.

    My unscientific analysis is that so much of the challenge stems from our inability to separate ourselves from the work. The work becomes the sole determinant of how we perceive ourselves and the world and we are lost when it fails. The same is true for anyone for whom the external world is a source of validation and affirmation.

    But it would be really interesting to also map the entrepreneurial brain and see if there are neurological and biological connections between the creative brain and a predisposition for depression.

    • http://www.EyeOnJewels.com/ Darius Vasefi

      The extreme highs and lows of building new companies would be a natural catalyst to turn anyone into depression and anxiety, let alone if there is a biological/genetic basis.

      I think the brain imaging (mapping) idea has great potential to help identify and perhaps address some of the issues. Dr. Amen has been doing a lot of work in this area http://www.amenclinics.com/conditions/anxiety-issues and his SPECT scans are pretty interesting – wonder if we can do something with his organization to do scans of startup founders and find any common patterns.

  • nostoppingprogress

    Perhaps it is the other way round. Maybe the entrepreneurial lifestyle–especially those who label themselves “serial”–is particularly attractive to some personality “disorders” as well as “types”? Another possibility.

  • http://twitter.com/djbressler David Bressler

    Brad,

    Having been pitched to so many times, I wonder what your thoughts are about the following?

    You have a big presentation to give. But, you’re flat. It’s one of “those” days. Do you reschedule, power through, or “I’m sorry, I’m a little flat today” (can be worked into the conversation so it’s not right up front) and power through?

    Also, love that quote from your dad about taking up too much space.

  • http://www.charliecrystle.com Charlie Crystle

    Well. As a guy who’s dealt with depression(and not) for as long as I can remember, and someone who divorced last year, I can say there might be a correlation.

    The stresses of being a CEO during the 2008 meltdown (the world’s and my own), then restarting after leaving my last company, trying to find a path back to whatever “greatness” I perceived in myself by building prototypes of three products over 4 years, the book I never finished, etc…let’s just say it led to some difficult times. Throw in communication issues and avoidance and you’ve got a valid sample of 1.

    But I think there’s a likelihood that entrepreneurs have the same rate of intrinsic depression (is that a thing?) as the rest of the population, but might have a higher rate of circumstantial depression.

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  • http://ohheyworld.com/ Drew Meyers

    Awesome topic I know I’m going to run into down the line. Just bought the book last night, will start it this weekend.

  • http://ideavist.com/ Young B. Kim

    First, I think it’s great that you are being candid about your OCD. Your post reminded me of a book I read back in the 90’s during the dotcom days. It was called “Down and Out in Silicon Valley: The High Cost of the High Tech Dreams” It was written by Mel and Patricia Krantzler ( http://goo.gl/mCMU4 ). It was eye opening in terms of the kinds of stress founders went through during that time. Might be relevant to what you’re looking for.

    In terms of a specific recent case study, I wish I could get you in contact with some of the entrepreneurs I worked with. Self-care comes up all the time. But there is a confidentiality issue. My wife is a therapist and she and I talk about the the importance of self-care all the time.

    One founder that I know that was candid about her bouts with depression is Sarah Hatter of CoSupport. You can find this discussion on the Founder Talk podcast: http://5by5.tv/founderstalk/36 I think it was actually in the second part she really talked about how meditation changed her life: http://5by5.tv/founderstalk/37

    Looking forward to what you find.

  • http://www.feld.com bfeld
  • lunarmobiscuit

    I’ve not seen any studies. Anecdotally, looking back at the co-founders of my six startups, depression and especially OCD seen a common theme. But rather than share anecdotes, given the large readership you have here n thus blog, plus your friend Fred’s blog, why not put up a quick survey and see whether the theory matches your readers?

  • Thomas C. Mueller

    I’d advise against working for a startup or the entrepreneurial life for someone who hasn’t addressed their mental health issues and gotten them into maintenance mode. I don’t see the stresses and chaos of entrepreneurship and startups being healthy for someone still coming to terms with mental health issues.

    I suppose this applies to individuals without mental health issues as well – people who don’t know who they are, what they want, and why they’re in the entrepreneurial/startup space are prime sources of conflict and drama.

    I’ve decided that everyone is dysfunctional in some way or another. We should just advertise our problems so the rest of the team knows how best to deal with us. Dysfunction Advertisement and Remediation as a Service?

  • Xanthe Matychak

    seems to be some stuff here on “entrepreneurs + anxiety” – maybe some leads? http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0,33&q=anxiety+entrepreneurs

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  • Mark Testa

    Despite the lack of good studies on the topic my experience in healthcare points to similar determinants in entrepreneurs that are common in the general public of depressed and divorced people. Feelings of isolation, high highs and low lows from the roller coaster of our work, poor communication (skills) with our spouse, unresolved issues from childhood that have altered coping and communication mechanisms, money issues, poor diet, lack of sleep and exercise.

    Covering up the pain with alcohol, drugs, and poor diet is a common approach with diminishing returns. Rx drugs are no more of a band-aid than the aforementioned self medication. Many come with side effects worse than the dis-ease.

    Below are some evidence based, holistic remedies that can help. But if you are not getting out of bed, feel suicidal or homicidal seek professional help immediately.

    Mild to moderate depression responds well to exercise, the daily kind. Many benefits of exercise occur in the first 20 minutes so make the time, its easier than you think. Fish oil has evidence of stabilizing the cell membranes in the brain and helping depression and bipolar conditions. If your joints are sore from your new exercise regime fish oils anti inflammatory properties will help that as well. Current research on vitamin D shows it is helpful as well. I measured 100 people and found only 2 had optimal amounts of vitamin D in their blood. While we live in a sunny state (CO) we cover up with sun screen and the UV never gets in to our skin make vitamin D. Adequate clean, (grass fed or veg) protein is necessary to make the neurotransmitters necessary to feel good. I have seen patients on antidepressants not feel any better because they eat poorly and their body lacks the appropriate building blocks. Julia Ross wrote a great book called Mood Cure, its worth a read. Im a firm believer in uncovering and dealing with past issues. A good therapist who can provide tools and not just rehash the hurt is best. When I was in a funk from divorce and running my own business I found a lot of benefit from a therapist who did EMDR. While EMDR has its naysayers, enough people have reported benefit that it is worth looking into. Reluctantly and at the persistent request from my twin sister, I attended the Landmark Forum and got some great tools to better understand and manage life. Lastly Im reading a great book called Happy for no Reason by Marci Shimoff which offers up daily practices that really help raise the set point of your happiness.

    The bottom line, this is how we are wired. We need tools and techniques to stay on top of it. The best thing we can do is talk about it like Brad does. Hiding is only makes it worse.

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